Basic electricity Concepts

September 25, 2017

So for now(2018) we human believe that Electricity is flow of elctrons from -ve(explained below) terminal to +ve(explained below) terminal, it is just that. The simple way to get this flow if by using the batteries, now lets start go to deep down.

  • Battery is a chemical device designed to create the force needed to move electron,
    • conductors like copper if connected postive and negative terminal of battery, give a path for flowing of electron
    • What is electron
      • Electron is the basic particle we know, that explains the flow of electricity.
      • We take that is exist(our imagination) and responsible for flow of elecricity
      • Charge of proton/electron is 1.6 * 10 -19C
    • What is charge and how is it calculated ?
      • Charge is the fundamental property we take that it exist(again we prove things taking this as base behaviour that we see).
      • Charge is the property of matter to interact with electromagnetic field, analogous to masses in gravitational field (but, much more stronger!).
      • There is not way to visualize it. Link for reference
      • There’s no convincing definition for these things. We can only know/talk about the characteristics of such a thing, because all we know (based on observation) is that when we account for something like the charge, we can explain some of the phenomena happening in nature.
      • Since there is not way to visualize, then there’s no way you can be convinced, except believe that something like that really exists, so we see behaviours and after all processing we say, something like that is there, which does so and so thing and have so and so properties.
      • We need a few base items to describe the phenomena happening in the outside world. And, charge is one among them!
      • It was calculated by Oil_drop_experiment and we take that number.
      • Charge is particle is said to be q = n * e or ` q = e + e … n times`
      • Charge is number of electron that substance has.
    • Same charge repel each other and opposite charge attract each other
    • Electrons have negative charge(a standard we say, there is nothing like negative to it. We say it negative just because of historic reason, it can be also be said charge of type A ), they travel from -ve end of the battery and are attracted to +ve end.
    • Flowing electrons are called electric current, it is measured in Amperes.

    • Typical AA battery is 1.5V, this is small force and would not give us shock
    • As this force will not move electron so fast
    • 120V or 220V is dangerous

    • Never directly connect +ve and -ive end of battery, it is called short-circuit.
      • In short-circuit, there is no resistance for current flow, so all the electron rust towards the positive end
      • It causes lot of heat-generation and as there is lot of movement towards the +ive terminal
  • Conductor are element which have small sections of electron which are free to move around conductors(again a theory we believe in).

  • Non-conductor all electrons are bind to atoms.

  • What is voltage ?
    • Voltage is like electric potential energy
      • Potential energy we say is like stored energy.
        • A stone at top of hill has some potential energy, because when when dropped from top of hill which converts to kinetic energy.
        • The water stored behind a dam has potential energy, which can be converted to electrical energy.
        • Chemical compounds have potential energy in the bonds between atoms. Some chemical reactions release energy in the form of heat. A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy when a contact is made between the electrodes.
    • Voltage is amount of energy we have for each electron(charge).
    • Or Volatge is potential difference
    • This energy moves electron and produces current.
    • Since we need energy to move the charge, so more energy we have for is flow of electron(i.e. current)

Other than battery we can use silk and glass experiment to see electric charges and some of their behaviour.

  • When we rub the glass rod with silk cloth, glass gets different type of behaviour and silk gets different one.
  • The glass rods now attracts a conductor, silk cloth repels the conductor
  • We get two different behaviours here, to understand them we made some conventions we say them as.
    • They are with some charge now,
    • One has positive charge and other has negative charge.
    • OR you’ve could said one has charge A other has charge B or anything else but both has different one.
  • What happens in above experiment is (it’s a theory currently all science people believe in, something new can come up too) :
    • Glass happens to lose electrons easily, and silk grabs them away from the glass atoms, so after rubbing the glass becomes positively charged and the silk becomes negatively(or type B) charged.
  • Similarly if we rub the rubber-rod with cat-fur the the rubber-rod said to have lose got electron hence move of type B charge.

  • How rubbing causes this charging
    • Rubber attracts for electrons more than animal fur.
    • So while rubbing atoms of rubber pull electrons from the atoms of animal fur.
    • Some particle attracts electron and some lose it up
    • Similar when you comb your hairs, the comb gets +ve charge, it losses electron and hairs attract them.

Basic concepts are covered up electricity are covered up, add will keep adding them if something else comes to my mind


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